2019-2020学年人教版英语必修五讲义含解析:Unit 1 Period Four

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Period Four GrammarThe Past Participle 1 as the Attribute and Predicative感知以下课文原句,补全方框下的小题1.But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera.2.He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people.3.From the stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the affected person died.4.He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London.5.Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused.6.He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth.1.以上句子中,句 3 和句 6 中为单个的过去分词作定语,常常放于被修饰名词的前面;句 1 和句 4 中为过去分词短语作定语,常常放于被修饰名词的后面。2.句 2 和句 5 中的过去分词在句中作表语。一、过去分词作定语1.意义及物动词的过去分词作定语往往表示被动和完成;不及物动词的过去分词作定语不表示被动,只表示完成。1表示被动和完成a polluted river 一条被污染的河流the watered flowers 浇过水的花2只表示完成,不表示被动fallen leaves 落叶the risen sun 升起的太阳2.位置单个的过去分词作定语时,通常放在被修饰词的前面;过去分词短语作定语时,通常放在被修饰词的后面,其作用相当于一个定语从句。The student dressed in white is my daughter.=The student who is dressed in white is my daughter.穿白色衣服的那个学生是我女儿。注意过去分词作定语和现在分词作定语的区别1语态不同现在分词表示主动;过去分词表示被动。The question discussed was very important.讨论过的那个问题很重要。The house standing at the corner of the street was built in 2016.矗立在街道角落的那所房子是2016 年建的。2时间关系上不同现在分词表示动作正在进行;过去分词表示动作已经完成。ErrorErrorError2.过去分词done、现在分词的被动语态 being done与动词不定式的被动语态to be done作定语的区别意义形式语态 时态done 被动 完成being done 被动 进行to be done 被动 尚未发生The building built last year is our classroom building.去年建造的楼是我们的教学楼。The building being built now is our classroom building.现在正在建造的楼是我们的教学楼。The building to be built next month is our classroom building.下个月将要建造的楼是我们的教学楼。二、过去分词作表语1.意义用在系动词后面,构成系表结构,表示主语所处的状态。She looked disappointed.她看上去很失望。We were encouraged at the news.听到这个消息我们很受鼓舞。2.过去分词作表语表示主语所处的状态。这一结构从形式上与被动语态相同,但被动语态强调主语所承受的动作。试比较Error3.感觉类及物动词的现在分词与过去分词作表语的区别。英语中有很多与感觉有关的及物动词,其现在分词表示主动意义,即“令人有某种感觉的” ,多用来修饰物;其过去分词含有被动意义,即“人被引起某种感觉的” ,多用来指人、人的声音、笑容或表情等。常用的这类词有ErrorErrorWe were surprised at what he said at the meeting.我们对他在会上讲的话很是惊讶。His words were discouraging,which made many people discouraged.他的话令人泄气,使得很多人灰心丧气。单句语法填空1.I quickly lower myself, ducking my head to avoid looking directly into his eyes so he doesn’t feel challengedchallenge.2018· 全国Ⅲ2.Jim has retired,but he still remembers the happy time spentspend with his students.2017·北京3.I was the first Western TV reporter permittedpermit to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild.2016·全国Ⅰ4.To return to the problem of water pollution,I’d like you to look at a study conductedconduct in Australia in 2012.2016·浙江5.In art criticism,you must assume the artist has a secret message hiddenhide within the work.2016·江苏6.Do you find yourself getting impatient or annoyedannoy with people over unimportant things 2016·上海Ⅰ.单句语法填空1.When I entered his room,he was buriedbury in his books.2.Some of the people invitedinvite to the party couldn’t come.3.He is talking with a man calledcall Mr Wang.4.He was discouraged discourage when he heard his mother’s words.5.The cars being soldsell at the market now are made in Guangzhou.6.Tsinghua University, foundedfound in 1911,is home to a great number of outstanding figures.7.The three guns stolensteal from the police station were found in the house.8.The museum, locatedlocate next to the Wuzhen scenic spot,covers an area of 5,000 square meters.9.In 2011,a film,Soul Surfer, basedbase on her experiences,was released and made a hit immediately.10.The cart got stuckstick in the mud,but the farmer made no effort to get it out.Ⅱ.单句改错每小题仅有 1 处错误 11.Prices of goods through a computer can be lower than some store prices.buyingbought12.At last,the father came to the small school.puzzlingpuzzled13.Tom was very when he heard the news.surprisingsurprised14.He told me the news in an voice that day.excitingexcited15.Most of us liked the film by a young director.directingdirectedⅢ.句型转换16.A thief stole the goat tied to the tree.→A thief stole the goat which was tied to the tree.17.Father beat the son who was lost in the online games.→Father beat the son lost in the online games.18.This project,which was designed by the Chinese engineers,was constructed in only two years.→This project,designed by the Chinese engineers,was constructed in only two years.19.The castle,which was burnt down in the sixteenth century,was never rebuilt.→The castle ,burnt down in the sixteenth century,was never rebuilt.20.The meeting held yesterday is very important.→The meeting which/that was held yesterday is very important.基础巩固Ⅰ.单句语法填空1.Mrs White showed her students some old maps borrowedborrow from the library.2.The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain seatedseat as the plane was making a landing.3.The first textbooks writtenwrite for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.4.On receiving a phone call from his wife sayingsay she had a fall,Mr Gordon immediately rushed home from his office.5.War isn’t the best way to settlesettle problems between countriesit only leads to more violence and conflicts.6.The milk delivereddeliver to us that morning seemed to have gone bad,so we complained to the company about it.7.Newcomers to Hawaii should be warned not to stay in the sun too longthey might easily get burnt/burnedburn.8.Winter is gonego and spring is comingcome.9.These problems to be discussed discuss next week is of great interest.10.Listen The song being sungsing is very popular with the students.Ⅱ.单句改错每小题仅有 1 处错误 11.The girl in red is from a big city.dressingdressed12.Hearing the news,we all felt proud of our country.encouragedencouraging13.The look on his face suggested that he had passed the exam.excitingexcited14.Do you know the girl a red shirtwornwearing15.The question be discussed at tomorrow’s meeting is very important.∧ toⅢ.完成句子16.His wound became/was infected with a new virus.他的伤口感染了一种新病毒。17.Why do you always look so tiredDo you sleep well these days为什么你看上去总是很疲劳这些日子你睡得好吗18.I was disappointed with the film I saw last night.I had expected it to be better.我对昨晚看的电影很失望。我本以为它更好看些。19.Everybody was shocked to hear the death of the famous film star.听说那位著名的影星死了,每个人都很惊讶。20.We needed many more qualified workers.我们需要更多的合格工人。能力提升Ⅳ.阅读理解The idea of changing the world seems very crazy,but there are a number of small everyday things we can do to make the world better.Community centers,parks,libraries ,homeless shelters,hospitals and schools are all places where students can make a difference through service.Alisia Orosco,10,wanted to show her love and care to the sick kids at University Children’s Hospital in Texas,where her brother had been a patient.She earned money by doing part­time jobs and used it to buy different toys for the children in hospital.Now she visits three hospitals every year with bags of toys.“I hope to help as many kids as I can, ” Alisia says.“It makes me happy to make them smile.”High school students in a town of Washington made a difference in the lives of some needy children by building a playground at a workers’ camp.They got a lot of help from a building supply store which provided free building materials for the project.Teens in New Jersey decided to offer their help at a local soup kitchen where people with no homes can get free food.But there wasn’t one.They created a one­day soup kitchen and were able to feed 60 needy people and allow them to take the rest home.Their efforts got more people to understand the great need of the poor in their community.Because of their efforts and success,a permanent soup kitchen was created with the 10,000 National Award they received from Newman’s Own Inc.High school students in Las Vegas helped 30 homeless adults prepare resumes during a job fair they held at the area’s largest homeless shelter.At least nine of the adults later found jobs.语 篇 解 读 文 章 通 过 几 个 事 例 说 明 了 小 事 情 也 可 以 产 生 大 的 影 响 ,从 而 让 世 界 更 美 好 。21.Every year Alisia visits three hospitals with bags of toys in order to .A.sell her different toysB.look for part­time jobsC.look after her sick brotherD.bring cheer to the sick kids答案 D解析 细节理解题。根据第二段中的“Alisia Orosco,10,wanted to show her love and care to the sick kids”以及“‘I hope to help as many kids as I can, ’Alisia says.‘It makes me happy to make them smile.’”可知,Alisia Orosco 每年去医院给生病的孩子送玩具,是为了让他们得到快乐和关爱。22.The one­day soup kitchen created by teens in New Jersey .A.received high praiseB.cost 10,000 to buildC.got help from 60 peopleD.was aimed at children答案 A解析 推理判断题。根据第四段内容可知,新泽西的孩子们创办的一日施粥所让更多的人了解到了穷人的需求,并获得了一万美元的奖励,由此可推断,孩子们创办的一日施粥所得到了高度赞扬。故选 A。23.Which of the following can best describe the students mentioned in the passageA.Kind. B.Brave.C.Proud. D.Crazy.答案 A解析 推理判断题。文章第一段引出本文主题小事情也可以产生大的影响,从而让世界更美好。下文所举事例中的青少年用他们的行动表达了对弱者的关心和帮助,是他们的善心让世界变得更加美好。故选 A 项。24.Where was a playground built for needy childrenA.In Texas.B.In a town of Washington.C.In New Jersey.D.In Las Vegas.答案 B解析 细节理解题。根据文章第三段第一句可知,在华盛顿的一个小城镇,一些高中生为需要关爱的孩子建立了一个操场。故选 B。Ⅴ.完形填空A minister牧师 met the head of a shoe factory.The minister was 25 if he found any poor people who needed 26 ,he could help.In making his rounds one day,the minister 27 a man to attend his church.“I would like to 28 , ” said the man, “but my shoes are so nearly worn out that I would be 29 to go to a meeting with them,and I am too poor to get any 30 .”“I will 31 you a pair of shoes if you will come, ” the minister said.“ 32 I wouldn’t like to go without my wife, ” responded the man, “and her shoes are no better than mine.” The minister 33 to get the shoes for her,too.“It would 34 be right to leave our three children barefoot, ” said the man.The minister promised the children should 35 have shoes.He then got their measurements and went to visit the 36 .He feared that he had promised others too many shoes,and 37 the shoe man might feel that he was abusing his 38 ,but when the situation was laid before him,the merchant 39 and said, “All right,come with me.”Together they took the 40 and went to the upper floor,where they 41 in a large room filled with shoes.The shoe man said, “All the shoes are 42 for just such cases as yours,and when you have any more of the 43 kind just come here and help yourself.”Of course the minister felt very 44 when he thought of how little he had expected from his generous friend.语篇解读 牧师想帮助因贫困而没有鞋子穿的一家人,又担心鞋厂主管不愿意给那么多双鞋。鞋厂主管的慷慨让牧师为自己的想法感到羞愧。25.A.ordered B.toldC.warned D.asked答案 B解析 由下文鞋厂主管说如果有需要,他可以帮忙可推知,此处指牧师被告知tell。26.A.jackets B.capsC.trousers D.shoes答案 D解析 根据第四段最后一句中的“to get the shoes for her, too”可推知,此处指牧师碰到需要“鞋”的穷人。27.A.invited B.forcedC.persuaded D.reminded答案 A解析 联系下一段那个人的回答可推知,牧师邀请invite那个人去教堂参加活动。此处没有“逼迫” “劝说” “提醒”之意,故可排除 B、C 、D 三项。28.A.leave B.stayC.go D.change答案 C解析 联系下文 but 所表示的转折意义可推知,那个人想去go教堂参加活动。29.A.ashamed B.surprisedC.excited D.frightened答案 A解析 那个人认为自己的鞋子快破了,穿这样的鞋见人他会感到很惭愧的,故选ashamed。30.A.stronger B.longerC.farther D.better答案 D解析 那个人继续解释自己不能去教堂的原因他太穷了,不能买更好的better鞋子。31.A.make B.getC.borrow D.lend答案 B解析 根据下一段最后一句中的“to get the shoes for her, too”可推知,如果对方去教堂的话,牧师会给他弄到一双鞋,故选 get。32.A.Or B.ForC.But D.So答案 C解析 那个人又说了另一个不能去教堂的理由妻子不去,他也不会去的,她的鞋子也不好。此处与上文是逻辑上的转折关系,故用 but。33.A.refused B.promisedC.managed D.chose答案 B解析 联系第六段首句中的“The minister promised”可推知,那个人讲完,牧师许诺promise也送给他妻子一双鞋。34.A.hardly B.alwaysC.often D.usually答案 A解析 根据下文中的“leave our three children barefoot”可推知,那个人认为,他们二人有了鞋,留着三个孩子赤着脚不对,故选 hardly。35.A.even B.everC.still D.also答案 D解析 牧师已经答应给他们夫妇鞋子,此处指牧师又许诺说,孩子们也also应该有鞋子。36.A.village B.schoolC.factory D.company答案 C解析 结合第一段鞋厂主管的话可推知,此处指牧师得到了那家人脚的尺码,就去拜访制鞋工厂factory了。37.A.explained B.forgotC.answered D.thought答案 D解析 空后的内容叙述了牧师心里的想法,故此处应选 thought。38.A.kindness B.courageC.bravery D.rudeness答案 A解析 上文提到牧师担心自己许诺给别人的鞋子太多了,他想鞋厂主管可能会认为牧师在滥用他的善心kindness。39.A.stopped B.appearedC.smiled D.remained答案 C解析 根据下文鞋厂主管的回答可推知,他了解了情况后应该是微笑smile了,表示同意。40.A.plane B.elevatorC.bus D.taxi答案 B解析 结合空后的“went to the upper floor”可推知,他们一起乘坐电梯 elevator,到了楼上。41.A.failed B.hidC.waited D.landed答案 D解析 根据下文可知,他们乘坐电梯到达land一个大房间,房间里满是鞋子。42.A.put on B.set asideC.turned in D.found out答案 B解析 鞋厂主管说,这些鞋子是留出来set aside应对像“ 牧师送鞋给穷人”这类情况的。43.A.same B.specialC.different D.common答案 A解析 根据上下文中的“when you have any more”和“come here and help yourself”可以推知,此处指当再出现同一类有穷人需要鞋子的情况时,故选 same。44.A.proud B.angryC.small D.nervous答案 C解析 对方这么慷慨,再联系倒数第三段中提到的牧师对鞋厂主管的担心可知,牧师此时肯定感到自己矮人一截,故选 small。Ⅵ.语法填空When you smile,not only do you feel happy,45. you also bring a ray of light into the lives of others.Someone once 46. say, “A smile is a curve弧线 that sets everything straight.”Know that a smile is a little thing that can produce great results.47. it takes is a smile to make short work of many 48. difficult,for just being happy can help others.I have often thought of a smile 49. the touch of God given to his people.A day without a smile is a day wasted.Some people grin咧嘴笑 and bear it,while 50. smile and change the world.Don’t you love the feelings of being 51. return with a smile It can move into the soul and release good into the world.It can make friends with 52. strange.It can bring friends closer together.It can bridge the generation gap.It can fill the heart with love.A smile is a light in the window of the soul,53. indicate that the heart is at home.God puts a smile on our faces so that we would see that the world needs that breath to 54. light the darkness in our life.语 篇 解 读 本 文 是 一 篇 议 论 文 ,论 述 了 微 笑 的 重 要 性 以 及 微 笑 对 人 们 生 活 的 影 响 。45.答案 but解析 考查并列连词。根据句中的“not only”可知,此处考查 not only.but also.结构。46.答案 said解析 考查动词的时态。根据时间状语“once”可知,此处应用一般过去时态,故填said。47.答案 What解析 考查连接词。分析句子结构可知,what 引导主语从句,并在从句中作宾语。48.答案 difficulties解析 考查名词复数。difficulty 意为“难事” ,many 后接可数名词的复数,故填difficulties。49.答案 as解析 考查固定搭配。think of.as.认为是。50.答案 others解析 考查代词。分析句子可知,该句考查 some.others.意为“一些人其他人” 。51.答案 returned解析 考查非谓语动词。you 与 return 之间为被动关系,故用过去分词。52.答案 strangers解析 考查词性转换。由上文中的 friends 可知,此处应为 strangers,意为“陌生人” 。53.答案 indicating解析 考查非谓语动词。indicate 与其逻辑主语 a smile 之间为主动关系,故用现在分词作状语。54.答案 lighten解析 考查词性转换。因为 to 为不定式符号,且在此处表示目的,故其后加动词原形。故用 lighten 意为“ 使变明亮” 。Ⅶ.短文改错My name is Ann.I’ve been in China in a few years.With the help of Li Hua,a good friend of mine,I ’ve been used to live in China.Li Hua,like many girls,are beautiful and lively.We became friends after we meet each other a few years ago.Although her English isn’t easy to understand,but we enjoy chatting and we usually talk a lot about our favorite books.We’re both surprised that Chinese culture or American culture are so differently.Now we are planning nice party for next Sunday.There,I will introduce Li Hua to my friends,one of who has been to China several time.答案 My name is Ann.I’ve been in China a few years.Wit